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Pauli re-derived the spin-statistics theorem , a critical result of quantum field theory which states that particles with half-integer spin

In 1940, Pauli re-derived the spin-statistics theorem, a critical result of quantum field theory which states that particles with half-integer spin are fermions, while particles with integer spin are bosons.

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The elementary particles that make up matter , the quarks and leptons, all

The elementary particles that make up matter, the quarks and leptons, all have spin 1/2 and are thus fermions.

particles which obey the Pauli exclusion principle (e.g. electrons, protons, neutrons)

Fermions are particles which obey the Pauli exclusion principle (e.g. electrons, protons, neutrons).

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a category of the particles that make up matter

Fermions are a category of the particles that make up matter, and include electrons, protons and quarks.

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all the particles that make up matter (for example, electrons)

In simple terms, fermions are all the particles that make up matter (for example, electrons), and bosons are all the particles that carry force (for example, photons).

particles which have half integer spin (1/2, 3/2, 5/2

Fermions are particles which have half integer spin (1/2, 3/2, 5/2

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the particles that make up matter (protons, neutrons, electrons, etc

Fermions, in fact, are the particles that make up matter (protons, neutrons, electrons, etc.), whereas bosons are the field particles that transport the energy of interaction (photons, gluons, W and Z0 particles, and also gravitons, whose existence is not yet experimentally confirmed).

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particles that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and have spin s=1/2\small

Fermions are particles that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and have spin s=1/2\small

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the constituents of matter: electrons, protons, neutrons

Fermions are the constituents of matter: electrons, protons, neutrons; while bosons are particles that transmit interactions (force carriers), or the constituents of radiation: Photons, the force carriers of the electromagnetic field, W and Z bosons, the force carriers that mediate the weak force and gluons the force carriers underlying the strong force.

the constituents of matter – protons, neutrons and electrons

Interestingly, the constituents of matter – protons, neutrons and electrons – are all fermions, whereas a composite particle, such as an atom, is a boson if the total number of protons, neutrons and electrons is even, and a fermion if the total number is odd.

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